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北外2012英语同声传译研究生入学考试试题及答案

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  北京外国语大学2012年硕士研究生入学考试试题
  招生专业:英语同声传译 科目名称:英汉互译

  (考试时间3小时,满分150分,全部写在答题纸上,答在试题页上无效)

  一、将下列段落译为汉语(25分)

  Fifteen years ago at the Fourth World Conference on Women. Governments pledged to advance equality, development and peace for all women everywhere. The landmark Beijing Declaration has had a deep and wide-ranging impact. It has guided policymaking and inspired new national laws. It has sent a clear message to women and girls around the world that equality and opportunity are their inalienable rights.

  There are many examples of progress, thanks in large part to the resolute efforts of civil society organizations. A growing number of countries have legislation that

  supports sexual and reproductive health and promotes gender equality.

  Nonetheless, much work remains. Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high, too few women have access to family planning, and violence against women remains

  a cause for global shame. In particular, sexual violence during conflict is endemic. One key lesson of the past decade and a half is the importance of addressing broader discrimination and injustice. Gender stereotyping and discrimination remain common in all cultures and communities. Early and forced marriage. sexual abuse and trafficking of young women and girls are disturbingly prevalent and, in some areas, on the rise. Whether looking through the lens of poverty. or in times of disaster, we see that women still bear the greatest burden.

  15年前,在第四次妇女问题世界会议上,各国政府承诺为造福世界各地所有妇女而推进平等、发展与和平。具有划时代意义的《北京宣言》影响深远,成为决策的指南,成为制定国家新法律的灵感所在,同时清楚地告诉世界各地的妇女和女孩:平等和机会是她们不可剥夺的权利。

  进步的实例有许许多多,在很大程度上是民间社会组织坚定努力的结果。越来越多的国家已立法支持增进性健康和生育健康,促进男女平等。

  尽管如此.需要做的工作还很多。孕妇死亡率仍然高居不下,令人无法接受;能获得计划生育服务的妇女为数太少;暴力侵害妇女行为仍遍及全球,令人蒙羞。冲突期间的性暴力行为尤其普遍。过去l5年给我们的一条重要经验是:处理更广范围内的歧视和不公,至关重要。性别陈规观念和性别歧视在各文化和族群之中仍普遍存在。早婚和逼婚、性暴力及贩运年轻妇女和女孩的行为盛行不止,在某些地区甚至有增无减,令人不安。不论在贫困之中,还是在灾难之时,妇女都仍然承受最沉重的负担。

  二、将下列短文译为汉语(50分)

  Central Bankers: Stop Dithering. Do Something.

  Both the American economy and the global economy are facing a familiar foe: policy defeatism. Throughout modern economic history, whether in Western Europe in the 1920s. in the United States in the 1930s, or in Japan in the 1990s, every major financial crisis has been followed by premature abandonment - if not reversal - of the stimulus policies that are necessary for sustained recovery. Sadly: the world appears to be repeating this mistake.

  The right thing to do right now is for the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank to engage in further monetary stimulus. Having lowered short-term interest rates, they should buy (or in the case of the Fed, resume buying) significant quantities of government securities to help push down long-term interest rates and encourage investment.As many have observed. we need to rebalance the economy from imports to exports, from private consumption to savings, from tax breaks to infrastructure rebuilding and from the financial sector to everything else. The process of rebalancing will require movement of capital from older industries and activities to newer ones -that is, investment. Moreover, a lot of what was termed "investment" during the boom years was misallocated - wasted - capital. so many productive projects were ignored.

  But investment has been held back because of uncertainty over the economy's future prospects. And the ability to attract investors is being limited by the giant burden of private-sector debt, In other words, a financing problem is inhibiting the restructuring of our economy. Alleviating generalized financing problems and low

  investor confidence is precisely what monetary stimulus does. Some claim that monetary easing will impede restructuring. But this makes no sense. For all the talk that monetary austerity promotes the "creative destruction" necessary for the economy to recover. it does not work that way.

  中央银行:别再惊慌和犹豫,行动起来

  美国经济和世界经济都面临着一个熟悉的敌人:政策的失败。纵观现代经济史,上个世纪中,不管是二十年代的西欧,还是三十年代的美国,或是九十年代的日本,每一次主要的金融危机之后,政府都过早放弃了为了使经济持续复苏所必须的刺激政策,甚至是反其道而行之。可悲的是,今天的世界正在重复这个错误。

  现在应该做的事情是美联储和欧洲央行采取进一步的货币刺激。通过调低短期利率,他们应该买进(或者在美联储的情况下,继续购买)重大数量的政府债券,以帮助推低长期利率,并鼓励投资。正如许多人观察到的,我们需要重新平衡经济,从进口到出口,从个人消费到储蓄,从税收减免到基础设施重建,从金融部门到其他一切部门。这个调整的过程需要把资本从传统行业和行为中转到新兴行业—即进行投资。而且,在经济繁荣期我们曾经称之为”投资”的诸多行为中,资本被配置不当…被浪费…导致许多有生产性的项目被忽略。

  但是不管怎样,由于现在对未来经济前景的不确定,投资己受到阻碍。而且,私营部门里存在庞大的债务负担也抑制了吸引投资的能力。换句话说,资金问题阻碍了我们调整经济结构。缓解普遍性的资金问题和提高投资者的信心是货币刺激切实要做的事。

  有些人说货币的宽松政策会阻碍经济结构重组,但这说不通。还有许多观点认为,货币紧缩会促进“创造性破坏”,从而使经济复苏,实际上这也行不通。

  三、将下列段落译为英语(25分)

  我们要大力发展社会事业。坚持优先发展教育,稳步提升全民受教育程度。坚持自主创新、重点跨越、支撑发展、引领未来的方针,完善科技创新体系和支持政策,着力推进重大科学技术突破。研究与试验发展经费支出占国内生产总值比重达到2.2%,促进科技成果更好地转化为生产力。适应现代化建设需要,加强人才培养,努力造就规模宏大的高素质人才队伍。大力加强文化建设,推动文化改革发展实现新跨越,满足人民群众不断增长的精神文化需求。

  We need to make full effort to develop social undertakings. Education will remain a priority to steadily raise the level of literacy of the society as a whole. Home spun and forward looking innovation will be boosted to facilitate cutting age changes in key areas and serve further national development. The system and policies aiming at fostering innovation will be improved to pave the way for major breakthroughs in scientific and technologic discoveries. Share of R&D spending in GDP will increase to 2.2% with more effective schemes to commercialize the research outputs. Human capital development will be strengthened to form a vast supply of brain power to help achieve China's modernization program. Cultural reforms will be promoted to explore unchartered territories and meet the public's growing demand for recreational and artistic fulfillment.

  四、将下列短文译为英语(50分)

  我认识一位从中国来美国的暑期交换学生,她告诉我一件她觉得奇怪的事情。她寄宿在一个美国人的家里。这家夫妇俩都是律师,有4个从上高中到小学的男孩。那个人家房子很大,有游艇(恐怕不止一只)和私人飞机,非常富有的样子,生活却很简单。有一次,父母两人出外度假,临走前在家里的大冰箱里为留在家里的4个孩子放好一模一样大小的4份食品,不分大小,每人一份。而且,还给他们每人分配一份工作,修整草地、洗游泳池、清理厨房、厕所等等。这4个孩子,大的食品不够吃,小的吃不了。大的向小的要,小的就以代做自己那一份家事为条件,把吃不了的分一些给大的。

  这确实是一个典型的美国家庭,说它典型,不是说它拥有的财产(这个家庭显然要比许多其他美国家庭富有),而是说它的价值观。

  I know a Chinese student who came to the United States on a summer exchange program. She told me about the things she found hard to understand about the American family where she had her home stay'. The couple were both lawyers and had four children, all boys but in various stages of schooling from primary to senior high. They had a large house, a yacht and a private jet. Despite the trappings of great wealth, their lifestyle was surprisingly straightforward. For example, the parents.

重点单词   查看全部解释    
particular [pə'tikjulə]

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adj. 特殊的,特别的,特定的,挑剔的
n.

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encourage [in'kʌridʒ]

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vt. 鼓励,促进,支持

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effective [i'fektiv]

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adj. 有效的,有影响的

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reserve [ri'zə:v]

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n. 预备品,贮存,候补
n. 克制,含蓄

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disaster [di'zɑ:stə]

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n. 灾难

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abuse [ə'bju:s,ə'bju:z]

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n. 滥用,恶习
vt. 滥用,辱骂,虐待

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destruction [di'strʌkʃən]

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n. 破坏,毁灭,破坏者

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recovery [ri'kʌvəri]

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n. 恢复,复原,痊愈

 
boom [bu:m]

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n. 繁荣,低沉声,帆杠,水栅
vi. 急速增

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financing [fai'nænsiŋ]

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n. 融资,资金供应 动词finance的现在分词

 


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