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多样的文明,创造世界共同的未来(3)(中英对照)

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III. All civilizations are of equal value, and all have merits and flaws. There is no such thing as a perfect civilization or a civilization without a single virtue, and no one civilization should be judged superior or inferior to another.

三. 各种人类文明在价值上是平等的,都各有千秋,也各有不足。世界上不存在十全十美的文明,也不存在一无是处的文明,文明没有高低、优劣之分。

Before the opening of new sea routes, there existed a state of basic equality between different civilizations. This state was shattered, however, by Western colonial expansion and eventual hegemony. During this process, some remote civilizations were decimated, such as the American Indian and ancient West African civilizations, and core regions of ancient civilizations such as West Asia, North Africa, India, and China also fell one by one into the hands of Western invaders. Equality between civilizations no longer existed, and many civilizations faced a crisis of life and death.

在新航路开辟之前,各种文明原本处于基本平等的状态中,而西方的殖民扩张打破了这种平等,最终树立起西方的霸权。在这个过程中,一些边远的文明(如印第安文明、西非古文明)被消灭,人类古老文明的核心区,比如西亚、北非、印度和中国,则一一落入西方的手中。文明间的平等关系由此不复存在,诸多文明面临着生死危机。

According to Arnold Toynbee, challenge and response constitute a mechanism for the existence of civilization that determines whether a civilization will disappear or continue. Whether this theory is correct or not, the fact is that at the moment of Western hegemony reaching its peak, at a time when many civilizations were facing a crisis of life and death, there formed a global movement, and that movement was named modernization. This marked the beginning of cultural rejuvenation, the means of which was modernization. Through modernization, non-Western countries learned from the West how to catch up. By the beginning of the 21st century, non-Western countries had already achieved tremendous progress toward modernization, ushering in a new historical turning point.

汤因比认为,挑战与应战是文明生存的机制,决定着文明的消失与延续。我们且不论这种理论正确与否,我们看到的事实是:恰恰在西方霸权登峰造极、众多文明存亡危殆时,一个全球性的运动形成了,这个运动叫“现代化”。文明复兴的过程正是从这里开始的,复兴的工具恰恰是现代化。通过现代化,非西方国家学习西方而追赶西方。到21世纪开始时,非西方国家的现代化已取得巨大成就,一个新的历史转折点正在到来。

Modernization began in Western Europe, and the emergence of modern nation-states marked the starting point of this process, which involved all aspects of society. Many important events from the history textbook, such as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the opening of new sea routes, the scientific and technological revolution, and the bourgeoisie revolution, are all part of Western modernization. Today, while the process of modernization has generally been completed in Western countries, cultural diversity has not disappeared. On the contrary, it has become even more vibrant, even within those Western countries.

现代化是从西欧开始的,现代民族国家是这个过程的起点。现代化是一个全方位的过程,涉及社会的方方面面。我们在历史教科书上看到的那些事件,比如文艺复兴、宗教改革、新航路开辟、科学和技术革命、资产阶级革命等,都属于西方的现代化。今天,西方已经普遍完成了现代化,但文明的多样性却没有消失,相反,它变得更加丰富多彩了,即使在西方国家范围内,情况也是这样。

First, there are different pathways to modernization. Britain took a gradual approach toward reform, France took the road of violent revolution, Germany carried out reforms from the top down, and the US, as a British colony, had to first gain independence before focusing on development. On the economic front, after the Industrial Revolution, Britain adopted the laissez-faire approach, and France basically followed suit while making some alterations, while Germany took the extraordinary route of promoting rapid economic growth with state power. Although the US followed Britain’s laissez-faire model, in the 20th century, it became the first developed capitalist country to carry out large-scale state intervention.

首先,现代化的道路是不同的。英国用渐进的方式进行改革,法国采用革命的暴力,德国因自上而下的变革自成一统,美国作为殖民地,则需要先独立、再发展。在经济方面,工业革命后,英国采用“自由放任”的模式,法国基本如此却有所偏离;德国用国家的力量推动经济快速增长,表现得极其“异类”;美国虽按英国的模式走“自由放任”的路,可是在20世纪,它在所有发达资本主义国家中第一个实行大规模的国家干预。

Second, different countries have different political and social systems. Politically, Britain practices constitutional monarchy, while the US adheres to the republican system. There are clear distinctions between the parliamentary and presidential systems, further widening the political gap between the two countries. Looking at electoral methods, Britain has adopted the "first past the post" system, while the US invented the Electoral College system. As for the "three branches of government," the US is the only developed capitalist country to have truly incorporated this into its institutional design, so the US system is hardly the typical model. In terms of social systems, European countries practice a welfare model, something that the US has refused to adopt, perceiving it as a hotbed for laziness.

其次,各国的政治制度和社会制度是不同的。政治上,英国实行君主立宪制,美国采纳共和制,议会制与总统制的区别非常显眼,从而使英、美之间的差距更加拉大;就选举方式看,英国人采用“领先者获胜”,美国人发明“选举人制度”;至于“三权分立”,在发达资本主义国家中,真正把“三权分立”作为制度设计的只有美国,因此美国的模式并不是样板。在社会制度方面,欧洲国家实行福利制度,美国却弃之如敝屣,把它看作是懒惰的“温床”。

Third, Western countries are not immutable throughout the development process. As examples of this, Britain shifted from a laissez-faire society to a welfare-based one, France cycled through revolution to reach reform, and the US abolished racial discrimination policies, acknowledging racial equality at least in legal terms. These changes prove that there are differing forms of modernization even within one country, and that cultural diversity is a normal state.

再次,西方国家在它们发展的过程中也不是一成不变的。比如,英国从“自由放任”到福利社会,法国从革命道路转向改革,美国改变种族歧视政策,至少在法律上承认了种族平等。这些都说明,即使在同一个国家内,也会有不同的形态,文明的多样性是一种常态。

If this is the case even in Western countries, then when the wave of modernization sweeps through non-Western regions, it surely exhibits even greater diversity. It is apparent that during the global process of modernization, every country displays its own characteristics, and it is also clear that different countries have different models of modernization, for example, the Latin American model, the East Asian model, the Soviet model, and of course, the Chinese model. Mahatma Gandhi who launched the campaign of nonviolent resistance, Fidel Castro who led the Cuban revolution, Gamal Abdel Nasser who advocated Arab socialism, and Nelson Mandela who fought against apartheid in South Africa – all played a unique role in the modernization process of their countries and endowed that process with unique features. And yet, these successes cannot be replicated. When Western countries tried to forcibly change the political systems of Arab countries under the pretense of building a democratic Middle East, the Arab Spring became the Arab Winter, not only drenching the Middle East in blood but also bringing disaster to Europe itself.

西方国家尚且如此,那么当现代化的浪潮冲向非西方地区时,现代化的多样性就更加明显了。我们看到,在世界现代化的过程中,每一个国家都有它自己的特点;我们看到,不同国家有不同的现代化模式,比如拉美模式、东亚模式、苏联模式,当然还有中国方案;我们看到,甘地发动非暴力不合作运动,卡斯特罗领导古巴革命,纳赛尔提倡阿拉伯社会主义,曼德拉反抗南非种族隔离制度……所有这些人都在他自己国家的现代化过程中发挥过独特作用,为他的国家的现代化注入了鲜明特色。可是所有这些成功又都是不可复制的。当西方国家企图以武力手段改变阿拉伯国家的政治制度、建立所谓的“民主大中东”时,“阿拉伯之春”变成了“阿拉伯之冬”,不仅让中东血流成河,还把灾难引向欧洲自己。

Nevertheless, the Western theory of universal values insists upon uniformity, and does not acknowledge the diversity of cultural development. Francis Fukuyama declared that human history had come to an end. This idea can be traced back to Hegel, although the difference is that the latter believed Prussia to be the end, whereas Fukuyama believed the US to be the end. However, if even the US has not reached the end of its own history, how can humanity come to an end?

但普世主义的西方理论只承认单一性,不承认文明发展的多样性。福山说:历史终结了,人类历史走到了尽头。这个逻辑在黑格尔那里就有了,不同的是,在黑格尔那里,普鲁士是尽头;在福山这里,美国是尽头。然而连美国自己也还没有走到历史的尽头,人类又如何走到了尽头?

Does cultural diversity inevitably lead to conflict, and does conflict in turn lead to a life-and-death contest? Why can we not learn from the words of ancient Chinese philosopher Laozi when he said that "One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things," or from the Chinese adages, "amiability brings wealth" and "peace is most precious?" In the eyes of the Chinese people, "the ocean is vast because it embraces all rivers." The modern world can accommodate a diversity of modern civilizations, and modernization will mold a richer and more varied world. After a century of effort to modernize, many old civilizations have gained new life, recovered their confidence, and rediscovered their identities. The inequality between civilizations caused by Western hegemony is now being reversed. This process, which Samuel Huntington referred to as "clash of civilizations," should actually be considered a "revival of civilizations." Revival means a reappearance of cultural diversity and a rebalancing of equality between different civilizations; it also means that people think more deeply about the relevance of ancient civilizations in modern times by turning to traditional wisdom to resolve contemporary issues, such as the relationships between humans and nature, morality and gain, individual and collective, and freedom and constraint. In this complex and changing world, the only way to resolve humanity’s common problems is to rely on the concerted efforts of all civilizations, both Western and non-Western ones.

文明的多样性是不是意味着必定冲突、而冲突又意味着你死我活?为什么不能如中国古代哲人所领悟的那样:“一生二,二生三,三生万物”;或者如中国谚语所指出的那样:“和气生财”、“和为贵”?在中国人看来,“海纳百川,有容乃大”,现代世界容得下多种多样的现代文明,现代化将塑造一个更丰富多彩的世界。经过100多年的现代化努力,许多古老的文明获得了新生,它们恢复了信心,找到了自我,曾经被西方霸权扭曲的文明之间的不平等关系,现在被重新扭转。亨廷顿说这是“文明的冲突”,毋宁说这是“文明的回归”。“回归”意味着文明的多样性再次呈现,文明间的关系重新平等;“回归”也意味着人们更多地思考古老文明的现代意义,用传统的智慧去解决现代问题,比如,人与自然的关系,道德与利益的关系,个体与群体的关系,自由与约束的关系,等等。在这个纷繁变化的世界,只有依靠所有文明——西方文明和非西方文明——的共同努力、携手共进,才能解决人类的共同问题。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
nonviolent [.nɔn'vaiələnt]

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adj. 非暴力的

 
approach [ə'prəutʃ]

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n. 接近; 途径,方法
v. 靠近,接近,动

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shattered ['ʃætəd]

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adj. 破碎的;极度疲劳的 v. 打碎;削弱;使心烦意

 
modernization [.mɔdənai'zeiʃən]

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n. 现代化

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inferior [in'fiəriə]

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adj. 次等的,较低的,不如的

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pretense [pri'tens]

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n. 借口,虚假,伪装

 
disaster [di'zɑ:stə]

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n. 灾难

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challenge ['tʃælindʒ]

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n. 挑战
v. 向 ... 挑战

 
characteristics [,kærəktə'ristiks]

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n. 特性,特征;特质;特色(characteristi

 
virtue ['və:tju:]

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n. 美德,德行,优点,贞操

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