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拉加德总裁在韩国金融界女性网的主旨演讲(2)(中英对照)

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2. Empowering Women in Korea’s Corporations and Financial Sector

2、韩国的企业和金融业中的女性赋权
Let me begin with an IMF study of 2 million firms in 34 European countries. It found that adding one more woman onto the corporate board can help increase the return on assets by between 8 and 13 basis points.
首先我要提到基金组织对34个欧洲国家的200万家企业开展的一项研究。这项研究发现,在公司董事会中每增加一名女性,可提高企业资产收益率8至13个基点。
In creative and hi-tech sectors, the return on assets can be as much as 30 basis points. With the Pangyo Creative Economy Valley under development, this finding should resonate.
在创意和高科技部门,资产收益率可以提高多达30个基点。随着板桥技术园的发展,这一发现应能得到印证。
Beyond profits, gender-diverse boards can also improve corporate governance. Forthcoming IMF staff research also finds that a greater share of women on bank and banking supervision boards could be associated with greater bank stability. In particular, banks with a higher share of women are associated with higher capital buffers and lower non-performing loan (NPL) ratios.
性别多样化的董事会不仅能提高利润,而且能够改善企业治理。即将发表的基金组织工作人员研究也发现,银行董事会和银行监管委员会中的女性董事占比提高会随之提高银行的稳健性。特别是,那些有较大女性占比的银行通常拥有更多的资本缓冲和较低的不良贷款率。
So how can we get more women onto corporate boards in a country like Korea — where just 14 of the 100 largest listed companies have a female director?
在韩国100家最大的上市公司中,仅有14家公司有女性董事。那么,在这样一个国家中,我们怎样才能让更多女性进入公司董事会?
The family-friendly working practices that I mentioned earlier are absolute pre-requisites, but what else is needed? I do not claim to have all the answers — but let me share some thoughts based on three personal experiences.
我前面提到的支持家庭的工作做法绝对是一个先决条件,但除此之外,还需要做些什么?我自己并不知道所有答案,但想根据三个亲身经历分享一些看法。
I. Unconscious Bias
一、无意识的偏见
My first story. When I started working at Baker McKenzie in the 1980 s– despite my technical abilities and professional knowledge — there were occasions when external clients assumed I was only there to bring them coffee.
我的第一个经历是,当我在80年代刚到Baker McKenzie律师事务所工作的时候,尽管我有着很强的技术能力和专业知识,可有时仍有一些外来客户以为我在那儿的唯一工作是给他们端咖啡。
Today, sexism is more subtle — but, conscious or not, bias remains. When we talk of unconscious bias, we include the overall corporate culture, but also preconceptions about what breeds success.
如今,性别歧视更加微妙,但无论是否有意识,偏见依然存在。我们所谓的无意识偏见,既包括总体的企业文化,也包括对成功来源的先入之见。
It is important to bring unconscious biases out into the open, so they can be recognized, discussed, and addressed.
必须使无意识的偏见暴露出来,以便可以识别这些偏见,对其进行讨论并加以解决。
Options like "fast-tracking" promising women up the career ladder — so they can develop the right experience, skills and networks for senior management. Withholding names from selection committees can also pay dividends — "blind hiring" practices helped the Australian Bureau of Statistics increase the share of female senior executives from 21 to 43 percent.
像“快速提拔”有发展前途的女性,从而使其能够积累适当的经验、技能和人脉来获得高级管理职位。不让选举委员会知晓候选人的姓名,这也是一个好办法。“盲聘”做法帮助澳大利亚统计局把女性高级管理人员所占的比例从21%提高到43%。
Addressing bias is a critical step. Another tool, quotas, can also help — as my second story illustrates.
消除偏见是关键的一步。另一个工具是性别配额,我的第二个经历显示,这个办法也会有所帮助。
II. Quotas
二、性别配额
I used to think that quotas were unnecessary. Then I realized that, without them, it would take 5 generations until 30 percent of partners at my law firm were women. So I was converted to quotas, at least as a short-term solution.
我曾以为性别配额并不必要,但后来意识到,如果不这么做,在我工作的律师事务所需要五代人的时间,才能使女性合伙人的比例达到30%。因此我转为支持性别配额,至少视其为短期的解决办法。
As the debate around corporate quotas continues in Korea, there is much international experience to draw from. In recent years, we have seen several countries adopt corporate quotas. India did so in 2010, and the share of women on boards rose from 5 to 13 percent. In Malaysia, quotas helped double the proportion of female board members at the largest companies.
韩国仍在就企业中的性别配额问题进行讨论,而在这方面有很多国际经验可供借鉴。 近年来,我们看到一些国家采用了企业性别配额的做法。印度在2010年采用了这一做法,使女性在董事会中的比重从5%增加到13%。在马来西亚,性别配额让最大企业的女性董事所占比例翻了一番。
Mandatory legal quotas have also been introduced in parts of Europe. In Norway, over five years they supported a fourfold increase in the proportion of women on boards.
欧洲某些国家也在法律上强制规定了性别配额。在挪威,性别配额在五年时间中使女性董事所占比例增加了三倍。
We must also acknowledge that international experience with mandated corporate quotas has not been universally successful. Some quotas have been poorly implemented, lacked incentives, or had insufficient buy-in. Quotas cannot be viewed in isolation, but only as part of a wider package of measures.
我们也必须认识到,关于强制性企业性别配额的国际经验并非总能成功。一些性别配额执行不当,缺乏激励机制,或是并未得到充分的认可。不能孤立地使用性别配额,而是应将其作为一套更广泛措施的一部分。
III. Mentoring
三、导师制
My final story is about mentorship. I was fortunate enough to have a role model, a mentor from whom I learned. She taught me how to "dress," "address," and "redress":
我的最后一个经历是关于导师制。我很庆幸我有一个榜样,一个可效仿的导师。她教我如何“展现自我”(dress)、“清晰表述”(address)、“坚守应对”(redress):
Dressing is presenting yourself in a way that made others take you seriously;
“展现自我”是以赢得他人重视的方式展现自我;
Addressing is making yourself understood; and,
“清晰表述”是是清晰表达自己的观点;
Redressing is resolving conflicts and sticking up for your convictions.
“坚守应对”是解决冲突并坚持自己的信念。
For me, these lessons have stood the test of time.
对我而言,这些教诲经受住了时间的考验。
Male champions of women’s empowerment can also play a crucial role. They can instill in their colleagues their understanding that gender diversity is critical for organizations to thrive — for the benefit of men and women alike.
拥护赋予女性权能的男性支持者们也可以发挥关键作用。这些男性可以向同事们传播自己的这一认识:性别多样化对于一个组织的成功至关重要,对男女双方都有利。
Aside from my convictions, I can assure you that gender equality is taken very seriously at the IMF.
性别平等不仅是我本人的信念,我也确定地告诉你们,性别平等在基金组织同样受到很大重视。
The IMF is committed to promoting gender equality because — as I said — empowering women is critical for economic growth and prosperity.
基金组织坚定致力于促进性别平等,这是因为,正如我所说,赋予女性权能对于经济的增长与繁荣都至关重要。
So we are developing a body of research on the economics of gender — analyzing the macroeconomic effects, but also identifying the main obstacles and polices.
因此,我们正在设立一个研究性别经济学的部门,这个部门不仅将分析宏观经济的影响,还将找出主要的阻碍因素和应对政策。
We are taking gender considerations into account in our country programs and economic health-checks.
我们也将性别问题纳入我们的国家规划和经济健康检查工作中。
Many of our programs include gender-related provisions — most recently in Egypt, Jordan, and Niger.
我们在很多规划中都包括了与性别有关的条款,在最近埃及、约旦和尼日尔的规划中都是如此。
As part of our economic health-checks, we have conducted 27 country and regional pilots that looked closely at this topic.
作为经济健康状况检查的一部分,我们已开展了27个国家和地区的试点项目,对这一问题进行了仔细探讨。
For several years, we have also discussed gender-related issues with the Korean authorities. We remain committed to this dialogue as you identify and implement further measures to promote gender equity.
若干年来,我们也与韩国当局讨论了性别平等的有关问题。随着贵国确定并推出进一步措施来促进性别平等,基金组织仍坚定致力于就此开展对话。
In sum, the IMF will continue to bring women’s empowerment into the economic mainstream, because unleashing the potential of women is a global priority. This is especially the case in Korea. The time for action is now.
总而言之,基金组织将继续把赋予女性权能纳入主要的经济工作之中,因为发挥女性的潜力是全球的当务之急,这在韩国尤其如此。现在正是采取行动的时候。
In the words of Ko Un, in his poem Arrows: "Let’s all soar together, body and soul!"
用韩国诗人高银在《箭矢》一诗中的话说:“让我们一起高飞,身体和灵魂!”
I have shared some of my own experiences, but I do not claim to have all the answers. I look forward to hearing your views.
我分享了自己的一些经历,但并不知道所有答案。我期待倾听大家的看法。
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technical ['teknikəl]

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adj. 技术的,工艺的

 
address [ə'dres]

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n. 住址,致词,讲话,谈吐,(处理问题的)技巧

 
committed [kə'mitid]

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