In the world history since the formation of the nation states system in modern times, the international community experienced both hot wars and cold wars, witnessed the trend of development and progress, withstood the ordeals of confrontation and conflicts, and shared the benefits of communication and integration. All through these years, to build a model of international relations for peace, justice and stability remains a relentless pursuit of all countries. As the trend toward a multi-polar world, wider application of information technology, economic globalization and cultural diversity gains momentum, the international community is entering a crucial phase where changes are taking place in the world's landscape and systems. "Where are international relations heading", this question of our times thus cries out louder for an answer. Against such a backdrop, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as its General Secretary has put forth, in a timely fashion, the important thinking of building a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation, an important vision that will guide the development of international relations in the 21st century.
Building a New Type of International Relations Featuring Win-Win Cooperation Has Become an Important Guiding Philosophy for China's Diplomacy
In March 2013, during his visit to Russia, General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward, for the first time, the proposition to build a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation. In November 2014, General Secretary Xi stressed at the Central Conference on Work Relating to Foreign Affairs that one cannot live in the 21st century with the outdated thinking from the age of Cold War and zero-sum game and that it is important to keep abreast with the times, facilitate the building of a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation, and translate the vision on win-win cooperation into all aspects of external cooperation, including political, economic, security, cultural and other fields. Building a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation has since become an important guiding philosophy for China's diplomacy. In September 2015, General Secretary Xi said at the UN headquarters during the summits commemorating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the UN, that it is vital to carry forward the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, build a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation, and make concerted efforts to foster a community of shared future for mankind. His remarks were widely acclaimed by the international community. Building a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation has since become a vision widely recognized and accepted by countries of the world.
The vision to build a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation embodies the fine diplomatic tradition of New China, conforms to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter about sovereign equality, peaceful settlement of international disputes, and international cooperation, and suits the trend of the times. It is an innovation that goes beyond traditional theories of international relations and boasts profound theoretical and realistic significance.
First, it is a vision that takes a community of shared future as the common goal in handling international relations. Over the past five centuries and more, colonialism, imperialism and hegemonism have all led to confrontation, division, turmoil and conflict, for which mankind has paid a huge price. The vision on building a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation, based on insightful observations of the world's situation and the evolution of the international landscape, is a forward-looking thinking on the future direction for the human society. It features an overall plan and roadmap for achieving a community of shared future in five dimensions, namely, a partnership of equality and mutual accommodation, a security structure of justice, joint contribution and shared benefits, a development prospect of openness, innovation, inclusiveness and reciprocity, inter-civilization exchanges that uphold unity without uniformity, and an ecological system that respects nature and nurtures green development. It is a vision that reflects China's keen sense of responsibility for the world as a major country to share weal and woe with other countries and opens up new prospects of enduring peace and prosperity for the whole world.
Second, it is a vision that takes common interests as the important foundation for handling international relations. In today's world, countries are increasingly inter-connected and inter-dependent with their interests more closely inter-woven. To create a peaceful and stable environment and pursue common development and prosperity reflects a rising need and represents a growing political will. The vision to build a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation views and handles international relations from a holistic instead of piecemeal approach, and encourages countries to protect and promote the common interests of mankind while safeguarding their own interests and takes it as an important premise in viewing and handling international relations. The vision highlights the importance of common interests of mankind, and maintains that countries should respect each other and treat each other as equals on the basis of shelving differences and seeking common ground, and that they should work to build and expand shared interests, so as to achieve peaceful and harmonious co-existence of countries despite their differences in social systems, development paths and cultural traditions. This is a vision that responds to the trend of the times and thus lays a solid foundation for sustained, steady and sound development of international relations.
Third, seeking win-win outcome is our basic principle in handling international relations. Western theories of international relations worship the law of the jungle which leaves the weak at the mercy of the strong and regard zero-sum game and winner-takes-all as an unalterable tenet. However, as we often say in China, "A single flower does not make spring, while one hundred flowers in full blossom bring spring to the garden." The vision of building a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation rises above the zero-sum mentality of the Cold War and maintains that the social system and development path independently chosen by a country should be respected, that countries must have an enlightened view of its moral responsibility and national interests, and that every country, while pursuing its own development, should be sensitive to the interests of all sides and strive for win-win outcomes for all. This vision meets the common aspiration of the international community and suggests a new possibility of building a more just and equitable international order.
Fourth, cooperation is our preferred approach to handling international relations. The world is undergoing major development, transformation and adjustment. Thanks to the subdued risk of major-power confrontation, the phenomenal development of science and technology and booming regional cooperation, countries are faced with important opportunities never seen before. However, global challenges such as terrorism, climate change, and energy and resources security are also on the rise. In this context, no country can achieve security all by itself. A beggar-thy-neighbor approach or the alliance-or-confrontation mindset will lead nowhere. Coming together to share opportunities and meet challenges is the only viable way for us to handle state-to-state relations. The vision of building a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation approaches international relations from a strategic perspective of world peace and development. It aims to replace confrontation with dialogue and cooperation, and calls for all countries to work together to effectively address the widening array of global challenges and settle the major issues affecting human development and progress by expanding mutually beneficial cooperation. This is a sure path for the development of international relations under the new circumstances and injects a strong impetus to the global endeavor to increase exchanges and cooperation and prevent conflict and confrontation.