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习近平主席在党的十八届五中全会第二次全体会议上的讲话(中英对照)

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Recognizing the situation during the decisive push to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects

深刻认识全面建成小康社会决胜阶段的形势
Building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by the year 2020 represents a solemn promise that our Party has made to the Chinese people and to history. The period of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) overlaps with the deadline we have set for the attainment of this goal, which means that the 13th Five-Year Plan will be the last five-year plan in the push to realize the moderately prosperous society. The tasks of the Party and government over the coming five years therefore boil down to one thing: clinching the final victory in the decisive push to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and realizing the first of our "Two Centenary Goals."
到2020年全面建成小康社会,是我们党向人民、向历史作出的庄严承诺。"十三五"时期与实现全面建成小康社会奋斗目标的时间节点高度契合,"十三五"规划是全面建成小康社会收官的规划。今后5年党和国家各项任务,归结起来就是夺取全面建成小康社会决胜阶段的伟大胜利,实现第一个百年奋斗目标。
In the early stages of the reform and opening up drive, Deng Xiaoping first used the term "moderate prosperity" to describe Chinese-style modernization, introducing the goal of "establishing a moderately prosperous society in China" by the end of the 20th century. Thanks to the combined efforts of the whole Party and all Chinese people, this goal was attained on schedule at the end of the last century. The Chinese people had on the whole attained a moderately prosperous standard of living. Building on this foundation, the Sixteenth National Congress of the CPC in 2002 introduced the goal of comprehensively building a moderately prosperous society of a higher level for the benefit of more than one billion people in the first 20 years of this century. Since then, with a firm grasp on this goal, our Party has surged forward in relay fashion, making remarkable progress in pursuit of an all-round moderately prosperous society.
改革开放之初,邓小平同志首先用小康来诠释中国式现代化,明确提出到20世纪末"在中国建立一个小康社会"的奋斗目标。在全党全国各族人民共同努力下,这个目标在上世纪末如期实现,人民生活总体上达到小康水平。在这个基础上,党的十六大提出本世纪头20年全面建设惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会的奋斗目标。党的十六大以来,我们党扭住这个奋斗目标,一茬接着一茬干,一棒接着一棒跑,全面建设小康社会取得了显著成绩。
Now, with the finishing line in sight, it is time to make one final push in this journey that will traverse the first 20 years of this century. Completing this strategic task is both our historical responsibility and our greatest honor. We must be soberly aware that while we have what it takes to attain the goal of comprehensive moderate prosperity on schedule, the task we face is still enormous and the road ahead will not be easy going. As various problems overlap and risks mount, we are still facing grave and complex challenges. If we fail to respond to these challenges properly, or if we encounter systemic risks or commit disastrous errors, then the process of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects will be delayed, and could even cease entirely. Therefore, the entire Party must be fully prepared for what lies ahead, not just mentally but also in our work. We must recognize the situation, strengthen our confidence, and continue to work with strong determination.
现在,这个时跨本世纪头20年的奋斗历程到了需要一鼓作气向终点线冲刺的历史时刻。完成这一战略任务,是我们的历史责任,也是我们的最大光荣。我们必须清醒看到,如期全面建成小康社会,既具有充分条件,也面临艰巨任务,前进道路并不平坦,诸多矛盾叠加、风险隐患增多的挑战依然严峻复杂。如果应对不好,或者发生系统性风险、犯颠覆性错误,就会延误甚至中断全面建成小康社会进程。对此,全党同志必须做好充分的思想准备和工作准备,认清形势,坚定信心,继续顽强奋斗。
There is no use in knowing how to act if we do not understand our present situation. Despite the profound and complex shifts that have taken place in both international and domestic environments, our assessment that China is in the midst of an important period of strategic opportunity for development still stands. Internationally speaking, the current political and economic situation is on the whole conducive to preserving the overall trend of world peace and development. The world economy is making a difficult recovery amidst deep adjustments, the global governance system is undergoing profound changes, and the world balance of power is becoming increasingly equitable. These factors have created a relatively stable external environment for China's development. Domestically speaking, our considerable material foundations, abundant human resources, vast markets, and enormous potential for development all indicate that our economic fundamentals remain favorable for long-term growth. Though we have experiencedan unavoidable change of gear in economic growth upon entering a new normal of economic development, it should be noted that the transformation of our growth model is gaining momentum, the structure of the economy is constantly improving, new growth drivers are replacing old ones, and reform and opening up is unleashing new impetus for development. All this suggests that the sound trend of economic development we are currently seeing can be sustained.
"知其事而不度其时则败"。尽管国际国内环境发生了深刻复杂变化,但我国发展重要战略机遇期的重大判断没有改变。从国际看,世界政治经济形势总体上有利于维护世界和平与发展大局,世界经济在深度调整中曲折复苏,全球治理体系深刻变革,国际力量对比趋向平衡,我国发展具有相对稳定的外部环境。从国内看,我国物质基础雄厚、人力资本丰富、市场空间广阔、发展潜力巨大,经济长期向好基本面没有改变。经济发展进入新常态,在增长速度不可避免换挡的同时,经济发展方式加快转变,经济结构不断优化,发展动力持续转换,改革开放释放出新的发展活力,良好发展态势可以保持。
Building on the targets and requirements set forth at the Sixteenth National Congress of the CPC, and in view of new situations and developments, the Recommendations for the 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development (hereinafter referred to as the Recommendations) have set forth new goals for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects over the coming five years. These targets and requirements, together with those introduced at the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth national congresses of the CPC in 2002, 2007, and 2012 respectively, constitute a pledge we have made to the people. We must do everything in our power to see that they are realized. As these tasks and requirements have already been covered in the Recommendations, what I would like to talk about here is how to take control of and advance these initiatives.
《建议》在党的十六大以来确定的全面建成小康社会目标要求的基础上,根据新形势新情况,提出了今后5年全面建成小康社会新的目标要求。这些新的目标要求,连同党的十六大、十七大、十八大提出的目标要求,是我们对人民立下的军令状,必须全力以赴去实现。关于新的目标要求,《建议》讲得很清楚了,我想谈谈如何准确把握和扎实推进问题。
The targets and requirements laid out in the Recommendations are directed towards the entire country, but that does not mean they can be applied uniformly to all localities. For example, to achieve the goals of doubling China's 2010 GDP and per capita personal income by 2020, we will need to sustain an average economic growth rate of 6.5% and raise the per capita disposable incomes of urban and rural residents by at least 5.8% per year for the duration of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020), which in effect means synchronizing the growth of the economy with the growth of incomes. Apparently, it is not possible for all parts of the country to sustain this rate of growth. A more realistic scenario is that some areas will see higher growth while others will see lower growth. For certain central and western regions, old revolutionary base areas, ethnic minority areas, border areas, and impoverished areas, and particularly agricultural production zones and key ecosystem service zones, our primary goals in these areas will be guaranteeing national food security and ecological security, and achieving notable progress in various social programs, seeking in particular to raise standards of living and improve public services by a notable margin. We must guarantee the basic needs of those living in poverty and ensure that they have adequate access to education, medical care, and housing, whilst working to raise their incomes above the poverty line. It is not the case that GDP per capita and income per capita in all areas throughout the country must reach the national average before moderate prosperity across the board can be achieved.
《建议》提出的目标要求是对全国的要求,各地不可能整齐划一。比如,"两个翻番"意味着"十三五"时期全国年均经济增长要保持在6.5%以上,全国城乡居民人均可支配收入年均增长5.8%以上,力争发展和居民收入增长同步,但各地不可能都保持这样的速度,有些高一点、有些低一点才符合实际。对一些中西部地区,对一些革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区,特别农产品主产区、重点生态功能区,主要目标是保障国家粮食安全、保障国家生态安全的主体功能要得到加强,各项事业有明显进步,特别是人民生活、公共服务水平有明显提高。对贫困人口而言,要实现"两不愁、三保障",收入达到脱贫标准。不是说各地人均国内生产总值、人均收入等都要达到全国平均水平才是实现了全面小康。
What must be stressed is that to bring about a moderately prosperous society in all respects is not simply another all-out effort to make quick progress. We cannot realize the goal of doubling GDP and income per capita by relying on an extensive mode of development or by turning to strong stimulus measures to boost the pace of growth. That would only take us back down the same old road and create new conflicts and problems. As we are working to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, we also need to afford consideration to more long-term development and accelerate our efforts to create a mode of economic development that is suited to the new normal. Only in this way will we be able to build a moderately prosperous society of high quality and lay down a stronger foundation for realizing the second of our "Two Centenary Goals."
特别要强调的是,进入全面建成小康社会决胜阶段,不是新一轮大干快上,不能靠粗放型发展方式、靠强力刺激抬高速度实现"两个翻番",否则势必走到老路上去,那将会带来新的矛盾和问题。我们不仅要全面建成小康社会,而且要考虑更长远时期的发展要求,加快形成适应经济发展新常态的经济发展方式。这样,才能建成高质量的小康社会,才能为实现第二个百年奋斗目标奠定更为牢靠的基础。
Steering the way with new principles of development
以新的发展理念引领发展
Principles are precursors to actions. All actions in development are guided by principles of development, and it is these principles that ultimately determine the effectiveness of development and its success or failure. Experience tells us that development is a process of constant change, and that the environments and conditions in which development takes place are equally subject to change. Therefore, it is only natural that principles of development should also be subject to change.
理念是行动的先导,一定的发展实践都是由一定的发展理念来引领的。发展理念是否对头,从根本上决定着发展成效乃至成败。实践告诉我们,发展是一个不断变化的进程,发展环境不会一成不变,发展条件不会一成不变,发展理念自然也不会一成不变。
When we started drafting the Recommendations, I stressed the need to begin by clarifying the principles of development that we were going to establish. Strategic in nature, principles of development represent a program that provides guidance, and a concrete manifestation of the approach, direction, and focus of development. Once the right principles have been set, it becomes easy to define targets and tasks. Policies and measures can then be set accordingly. In the Recommendations, we have introduced the principles of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development. These principles have not simply been conjured up; rather, they have been formed on the basis of deep reflection on the experiences and lessons of development in China and abroad, and on the basis of a penetrating analysis of major development trends both domestically and internationally. They reflect our Party's deepened understanding of the underlying laws that govern economic and social development, and have been introduced in view of pronounced problems in our country's development.
我在《建议》开始起草时就强调,首先要把应该树立什么样的发展理念搞清楚,发展理念是战略性、纲领性、引领性的东西,是发展思路、发展方向、发展着力点的集中体现。发展理念搞对了,目标任务就好定了,政策举措跟着也就好定了。《建议》提出要坚持创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念。这五大发展理念不是凭空得来的,是我们在深刻总结国内外发展经验教训的基础上形成的,也是在深刻分析国内外发展大势的基础上形成的,集中反映了我们党对经济社会发展规律认识的深化,也是针对我国发展中的突出矛盾和问题提出来的。
The focus of innovative development is to address the issue of growth drivers. China lacks an adequate capacity for innovation. Our overall level of scientific and technological development is not high, the support that science and technology provide for economic and social development is insufficient, and the contribution of science and technology to economic growth is much lower than that of developed countries. This is the "Achilles heel" of China's huge economy. As a new technological revolution progresses, competition in science and technology is becoming increasingly intense. Without raising our capacity for innovation, it will be impossible for us to switch to new drivers of economic growth, and we will be at a disadvantage in global economic competition. For this reason, it is essential that we identify innovation as the primary driving force for development; regard talent as the number one resource underpinning development; and place innovation at the very heart of China's development. Innovationshould be promoted in every field, from theory to institutions, and from science and technology to culture. It should permeate the entire work of the Party and government, and become an inherent part of our society.
创新发展注重的是解决发展动力问题。我国创新能力不强,科技发展水平总体不高,科技对经济社会发展的支撑能力不足,科技对经济增长的贡献率远低于发达国家水平,这是我国这个经济大个头的"阿喀琉斯之踵"。新一轮科技革命带来的是更加激烈的科技竞争,如果科技创新搞不上去,发展动力就不可能实现转换,我们在全球经济竞争中就会处于下风。为此,我们必须把创新作为引领发展的第一动力,把人才作为支撑发展的第一资源,把创新摆在国家发展全局的核心位置,不断推进理论创新、制度创新、科技创新、文化创新等各方面创新,让创新贯穿党和国家一切工作,让创新在全社会蔚然成风。
The focus of coordinated development is to address the issue of unbalanced development, which has long been a problem for China. Imbalances are most pronounced between different regions, between urban and rural areas, between economic and social development, between the material and the non-material, and between economic development and national defense. When our level of economic development lagged behind, our main task was to develop at a rapid pace. But having developed rapidly for a period of time, we now need to direct our attention to the rebalancing of relationships and to the overall effectiveness of development, otherwise the "law of the minimum" will become increasingly apparent and social problems will only worsen. For this reason, with a keen awareness of the overall plan for the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics, it is essential that we properly balance major relationships in development and work constantly to make development more rounded.
协调发展注重的是解决发展不平衡问题。我国发展不协调是一个长期存在的问题,突出表现在区域、城乡、经济和社会、物质文明和精神文明、经济建设和国防建设等关系上。在经济发展水平落后的情况下,一段时间的主要任务是要跑得快,但跑过一定路程后,就要注意调整关系,注重发展的整体效能,否则"木桶"效应就会愈加显现,一系列社会矛盾会不断加深。为此,我们必须牢牢把握中国特色社会主义事业总体布局,正确处理发展中的重大关系,不断增强发展整体性。
The focus of green development is to address the issue of harmony between humankind and nature. Green, circular, and low-carbon development represents the trend of the current technological revolution, and the direction in which industry is shifting. With unparalleled future prospects and considerable potential for development in China, green, circular, and low-carbon development will help us to create a number of new growth points. China currently faces grave problems in the form of tightening resource constraints, serious environmental pollution, and ecological degradation, and the public's demand for fresh air, clean drinking water, safe food, and beautiful environments is becoming increasingly strong. For this reason, it is essential that we uphold the fundamental national policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment; pursue a civilized path of development that consists of developed industry, affluent standards of living, and fine natural environments; and accelerate the establishment ofa resource-conserving, environmentally friendly society, with a view to building a beautiful China and contributing further to the protection of global environmental security.
绿色发展注重的是解决人与自然和谐问题。绿色循环低碳发展,是当今时代科技革命和产业变革的方向,是最有前途的发展领域,我国在这方面的潜力相当大,可以形成很多新的经济增长点。我国资源约束趋紧、环境污染严重、生态系统退化的问题十分严峻,人民群众对清新空气、干净饮水、安全食品、优美环境的要求越来越强烈。为此,我们必须坚持节约资源和保护环境的基本国策,坚定走生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好的文明发展道路,加快建设资源节约型、环境友好型社会,推进美丽中国建设,为全球生态安全作出新贡献。
The focus of open development is to address the issue of internal and external coordination in development. As international economic cooperation and competition undergo profound changes, major shifts are expected to occur in the system and rules of global economic governance. The depth, breadth, and pace of China's "bringing in" and "going global" efforts are now greater than they have ever been, as is the pressure that the country is coming under to address external economic risks and safeguard national economic security. The question now is not whether or not to open up, but rather how we can raise the quality of opening up and the coordination of internal and external development. China's overall level of openness is not yet high enough. We still lack sufficient capacity to leverage international and domestic markets and resources, to respond to international economic and trade friction and make our voice heard in international economic discourse, and to use international economic and trade rules toour advantage. These shortcomings need to be shored up as soon as possible. For this reason, it is essential that we uphold the fundamental national policy of opening up; pursue a mutually beneficial opening up strategy; deepen people-to-people exchanges; improve the regional layout of our opening up as well as the layout of trade and investment; establish a new framework for opening up; develop an open economy of a higher level; and use opening up as a means of promoting innovation, reform, and development. The Belt and Road Initiative represents a major strategic initiative for expanding China's opening up and the top-level design for economic diplomacy. In carrying out this initiative, we need to locate breakthrough points, identify successful experiences and apply them to broader areas, and take steady steps forward with strong determination. We need to promote the reform and improvement of the system of global economic governance, steer the global economic agenda, uphold the multilateral trade system, accelerate the implementation of a free trade zone strategy, and actively assume the international responsibilities and obligations in accordance with China's capacity and status.
开放发展注重的是解决发展内外联动问题。国际经济合作和竞争局面正在发生深刻变化,全球经济治理体系和规则正在面临重大调整,引进来、走出去在深度、广度、节奏上都是过去所不可比拟的,应对外部经济风险、维护国家经济安全的压力也是过去所不能比拟的。现在的问题不是要不要对外开放,而是如何提高对外开放的质量和发展的内外联动性。我国对外开放水平总体上还不够高,用好国际国内两个市场、两种资源的能力还不够强,应对国际经贸摩擦、争取国际经济话语权的能力还比较弱,运用国际经贸规则的本领也不够强,需要加快弥补。为此,我们必须坚持对外开放的基本国策,奉行互利共赢的开放战略,深化人文交流,完善对外开放区域布局、对外贸易布局、投资布局,形成对外开放新体制,发展更高层次的开放型经济,以扩大开放带动创新、推动改革、促进发展。"一带一路"建设是扩大开放的重大战略举措和经济外交的顶层设计,要找准突破口,以点带面、串点成线,步步为营、久久为功。要推动全球经济治理体系改革完善,引导全球经济议程,维护多边贸易体制,加快实施自由贸易区战略,积极承担与我国能力和地位相适应的国际责任和义务。
The focus of shared development is to address the issue of social equity and justice. The ancients said, "To bring order to the land there must first be fairness. Where there is fairness there is order." Letting all people benefit from the fruits of reform and development is the essence of socialism. This not only reflects the superiority of the socialist system, it is also an important manifestation of our Party's wholehearted commitment to serving the people. If the issue of fairness can be properly addressed, the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of the people will be at our disposal. Only then can our country reach its maximum potential for development. Though China's economy is continuing to grow and the "pie" is getting bigger, inequality in the distribution of wealth is highly pronounced, and the urban-rural gap in incomes and public services is considerable. In terms of both actual conditions and institutional design, there is still much that needs to be improved in order to ensure that thefruits of reform and development can be shared by all people. For this reason, it is essential that we remain committed to the principle that development is for the people, reliant on the people, and that its fruits are shared by the people, and make more effective institutional arrangements to lead all people steadily towards common prosperity. Under no circumstances can we tolerate a situation in which the rich have everything and the poor have nothing.
共享发展注重的是解决社会公平正义问题。"治天下也,必先公,公则天下平矣。"让广大人民群众共享改革发展成果,是社会主义的本质要求,是社会主义制度优越性的集中体现,是我们党坚持全心全意为人民服务根本宗旨的重要体现。这方面问题解决好了,全体人民推动发展的积极性、主动性、创造性就能充分调动起来,国家发展也才能具有最深厚的伟力。我国经济发展的"蛋糕"不断做大,但分配不公问题比较突出,收入差距、城乡区域公共服务水平差距较大。在共享改革发展成果上,无论是实际情况还是制度设计,都还有不完善的地方。为此,我们必须坚持发展为了人民、发展依靠人民、发展成果由人民共享,作出更有效的制度安排,使全体人民朝着共同富裕方向稳步前进,绝不能出现"富者累巨万,而贫者食糟糠"的现象。
As this plenary session has emphasized, the introduction of the principles of innovative, coordinated, green, open, and shared development represents a profound change that will have a bearing on our country's overall development. Interconnected and mutually reinforcing, these five major principles form a whole that requires unified implementation. None of the principles can be emphasized over, or in place of, any of the others. If our implementation of any one of these principles falls short, our entire process of development will be adversely affected. This means that all Party members must raise their capacity to uniformly put these five principles of development into practice, in order to constantly open up new horizons for development.
这次全会强调,坚持创新发展、协调发展、绿色发展、开放发展、共享发展,是关系我国发展全局的一场深刻变革。这五大发展理念相互贯通、相互促进,是具有内在联系的集合体,要统一贯彻,不能顾此失彼,也不能相互替代。哪一个发展理念贯彻不到位,发展进程都会受到影响。全党同志一定要提高统一贯彻五大发展理念的能力和水平,不断开拓发展新境界。
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vt. 统治,支配,管理,规定
vi. 统治,

 
creativity [.kri:ei'tiviti]

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n. 创造力,创造

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issue ['iʃju:]

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n. 发行物,期刊号,争论点
vi. & vt

 
enthusiasm [in'θju:ziæzəm]

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n. 热情,热心;热衷的事物

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status ['steitəs]

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n. 地位,身份,情形,状况

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affected [ə'fektid]

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adj. 受影响的,受感动的,受疾病侵袭的 adj. 做

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disadvantage [.disəd'væntidʒ]

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n. 不利,不利条件,损害,损失

 
inherent [in'hiərənt]

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adj. 内在的,固有的

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