因果、(because, in that, for, therefore, thus, accordingly, consequently, given, hence, so…that, so...as to, if…then, when...then, as long as……)转折、(albeit, although, though, but, despite, even though, however, in spite of, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, while, whatever, regardless, even if, even though, yet, and yet……)递进、(even, indeed………)对比、(in contrast, on the contrary, far from, on the other hand, rather than, instead of, not…but, paradoxically, ironically, surprisingly, unexpectedly, curiously……)等等。
作为研究生院入学的参考考试，也许是为了体现内容有深度，很多句子涉及到了各个学科的背景知识。同时基于对所有学科学生都要公平的原则，所有的题目在 解题点上都不涉及背景知识。为了做到这一点，很多时候ETS都是把答案放到句子中，然后用语言上的线索提示你去把它找出来。以下是提供重复线索的几种常见 形式：
The eradication of pollution is not merely a matter of ___, though the majestic beauty of nature is indeed an important consideration.
A. economics B. legislation C. cleanliness D. aesthetics E. restoration
Comparatively few rock musicians are willing to laugh at themselves, although a hint of----can boost sales of video clips very nicely.
A. self-deprecation B. congeniality C. cynicism D. embarrassment E. self-doubt
Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely because they offered the audience a world ___of___.
A. bereft.. theatricality B. composed.. adversity C. full.. circumstantiality D. deprived.. polarity
E. devoid.. neutrality
The Muses are___deities: they avenge themselves without mercy on those who weary of their charms.
A. rueful B. ingenuous C. solicitous D. vindictive E. dispassionate
Unenlightened authoritarian managers rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups: a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents___.
A. demur B. schism C. cooperation D. compliance E. shortsightedness
冒号后面的内容解释了民主方式运作的工作团体中为何少有严重的冲突，所以即使看不懂a modicum of
tolerance for dissent是什么东西，也应该知道这个东西避免了严重冲突，故选B。
The valedictory address, as it has developed in American colleges and universities over the years, has become a very strict form, a literary ___ that permits very little ___.
A. text.. clarity B. work.. tradition C. genre.. deviation
D. oration.. grandiloquence E. achievement.. rigidity
a literary ___ that permits very little ___. 是前面的a very strict form的同位语，所以第一空格填form的同义或近义词，that permits very little___. 这个从句完成后应为strict的同义或近义词。
Many more eighteenth-century novels were written by women than by men, but this dominance has, until very
recently, been regarded merely as ___ fact, a bit of arcane knowledge noted only by bibliographers.
A. a controversial B. a statistical C. an analytical D. an explicit E. an unimpeachable
这道题同样，a bit of arcane knowledge noted only by bibliographers.是前面的___ fact的同义重复，所以空格应填入文献学家关注的事实，已知的五个选项里显然只有B选项的statistical(统计的)是文献学家的份内工作。
Longdale and Stern discovered that mitochondria and chloroplasts ___ a long, identifiable sequence of DNA; such a coincidence could be ___ only by the transfer of DNA between the two systems.
A. manufacture.. accomplished B. reveal.. repeated C. exhibit.. determined
D. share.. explained E. maintain.. contradicted
下半句的such a coincidence说明第一空格的动词填入后应体现为是一种巧合，两个看不懂是什么的、只知道是不一样的东西(非相关专业的绝大部分学生是不太可能认 识mitochondria和chloroplasts这两个词的)怎样了一个长的、可以认为是一模一样的DNA序列就是一个巧合呢?当然只有D的 share表示了这个意思。
Laws do not ensure social order since laws can always be ___ , which makes them ___ unless the authorities have the will and the power to detect and punish wrongdoing.
A. contested.. provisional B. circumvented.. antiquated C. repealed.. vulnerable
D. violated.. ineffective E. modified.. unstable